There are many diseases and health concerns that a person can inherit from their parents; however, inheriting a mutated gene from one parent doesn’t necessarily mean that you will be at risk for a certain disease. Keep in mind genetic disorders are caused by the mutation of a gene. In some cases this genetic mutation can be transferred to a child. For a genetic disorder to transfer to a child, depends on the consistency of inheritance for the disorder. Continue reading
The medical field of genetics is a broad range of expertise with many different paths to follow. One of these paths that ensure the student a rewarding and amazing career is that of a geneticist. The student first needs to determine whether they are a good fit for this awarding profession. The student must be stable and healthy mentally and emotionally. Continue reading
Researchers have stumbled upon a new discovery that may suggest that the secret to winning the battle against aging could be as easy as switching a genetic switch.
Studies have found that restricting caloric intake is effective at slowing signs of aging and lenghtening our lifespan. Now, researchers at Tel Aviv University’s Blavatnik School of Coputer Science have been focusing on metabolic function to try to find the so-called aging genes. The researchers made a computer-based metabolic transformational algorithm (MTA) to predict which genes could be turned off to produce the same effect as restricting calories.
Using this algorithm, the researchers predicted the genes in yeast could be turned off to turn the genetic expression of old yeast into that of young yeast. Restricting calories has been shown to extend lifespan in yeast, and it’s typically used for a genetic model.
The team found two particular genes — GRE3 and ADH2 — that can lengthen the lifespan of the yeast when they are turned off. Next, they applied the algorithm to human metabolic information and found a set of genes that can change 40-70% of the differences between a young and old metabolic system.
Researchers have also looked into telomeres in our DNA, which are found at the end of the chromosomes. They have determined that telomere length can predict the likelihood of age-related problems like heart disease.
Telomeres are also considered a key to aging. Think of them as those plastic ends on your shoelaces. They prevent chromosomes from fraying and sticking, which would destroy genetic information. Still, every time a cell divides, this telomere gets a bit shorter. When the telomers are too short, the cell cannot divide any longer and it will become inactive or die. It is this shortening that is associated with aging, cancer and a whole host of other health problems. It’s also like a tiny bomb fuse inside of each one of our cells, and it’s why our cells are mortal. We do have immortal cells, which are egg and sperm cells. These cells have a special enzyme that continually adds to the telomeres, otherwise these cells would quickly die and we could not reproduce.
Over the years, we have seen more and more proof that aging is not really wear and tear, but rather a lack of replacement of the building blocks of our body that leads to aging, says Dr. Lovely C. Laban. According to Dr. Laban, that is the whole idea behind popular cosmetic treatments like this: http://www.SkinByLovely.com/restylane/. As we age, our faces naturally lose volume due to genetic reasons. The body naturally begins to produce less collagen, which is why dermal fillers can make the face appear more youthful by replacing this lost volume.
Who knows. Maybe one day, rather than getting injections to restore signs of youth, we will actually take a pill that “fixes” our old, damaged cells and makes them act younger instead!
This is really such an interesting scientific advance, and it’s amazing to think what we will be capable of doing in the future. If you want to read more about the study, you can do so here.
It was not very long ago that individuals born with even common genetic deformities were left with no options but to live with their individual issues. Of course, today there are many options available and many surgical procedures that are designed to restore normal function and appearance to help men, women and children live a healthier and more fulfilling life.
Cleft Palate/Lip Repair
Cleft lip and cleft palate are two of the most common birth defects in the world. This defect results in incomplete formation of the upper lip or the roof of the mouth, or both together. A cleft usually occurs very early in development, and it can be repaired during plastic surgery to restore a normal appearance and function.
Rhinoplasty for Functional Issues
It is not uncommon for genetic defects to affect the function of the nose. In many cases, these defects are not readily apparent, but they can cause breathing problems, chronic nasal infections and much more. According to plastic surgeon Dr. Robert Mounsey, a functional rhinoplasty or a revision procedure like this http://www.Revesse.ca/revision-rhinoplasty.html can be a good option to restore normal function to the nose. Depending on the patient’s desires, it does not even have to affect the outward appearance of the nose.
Orthopedic Surgery for Genetic Conditions of the Cervical Spine
There are many genetic conditions that may affect the cervical spine, each with its own symptoms, prognosis and treatment options. Some of these conditions are noticeable at birth, while others take years to develop. After a diagnosis, an individualized treatment plan will be created.
Surgical Repair of Webbed Fingers or Toes
Webbed toes or fingers, a condition called syndactyly, is fairly common. This condition will fuse two or more toes or fingers together with a webbing of skin. In some cases, the toes or bones can even be joined by muscles, bones or nerves. Present at birth, syndactyl affects about 1 in 3,000 babies, particularly boys who are Caucasian. Because this webbing can affect the function of the hands or feet, it’s typically corrected through surgery. This corrective surgery may be done in childhood as well.
Seeking a Surgeon
While some surgical conditions to correct defects are quite common, such as cleft palate surgery, some are highly specialized. If you have a child with a condition that should or may be corrected through surgery, make sure you seek out a board certified plastic surgeon who has extensive experience performing the procedure in question. It may also take some work to find a surgeon who is willing and able to perform the repairs that are necessary, and you need to be willing to travel in the case of a complex problem, such as a genetic defect of the spine.
Fortunately, health insurance often covers surgical intervention if it is medically necessary or to correct a defect. Your first stop should be talking with your health insurance company to find out which surgeons are covered, and what your co-pay will be. If necessary, you may find assistance through a charity, or even through a plastic surgeon who do donates work for those in need.
While your skin can be affected by many environmental factors, such as sun damage and smoking, your skin is affected by an even greater factor: the genes you inherited. Genes determine many different characteristics by telling our cells how to make proteins, which affect all of the functions and structures of the body.
There is no single skin gene, but rather hundreds of genes that work together to affect even a single trait, or many traits may be impacted by just one gene. Your skin is made up of many proteins, including collagen, which forms the structure of the skin and gives it its strength. Melanin, which is the pigmentation that gives your skin its color, is also a protein.
One of the newest trends in skin care is using your genes to determine the best skin care regimen, according to Dr. Walker, a Miami dermatologist (see http://www.dianewaldermd.com/dr-diane-walder.asp). Rather than buying products and hoping they work, many companies are now allowing you to send in a cheek swap and receive a full report with details of the potential problems with your skin so you can personalize your approach to skin care. If you learn you are at high risk for skin cancer, you can boost your use of sunscreen and antioxidants to prevent damage.
One of the more well-known of these companies is SkinShift, which provides a $300 test that analyzes 17 SNPs, which pertain to 5 skin health factors: the formation of collagen, sun protection, antioxidant protection, inflammatory control and glycation protection. You’ll then get a list of which products and ingredients you should look for.
While it can be really tempting to jump head-first into these new DNA tests for your skin, remember that there is still a great deal of unknown. We do know that specific genes are responsible for some specific skin problems, our genes can only tell us so much. We just don’t know yet if it’s a good idea to use genetic testing for the purpose of skin care. Make sure you use common sense and stick with ingredients that have been proven to work, such as sunscreen and Retin-A. You should also consult with a dermatologist if you have specific skin care concerns.
Hopefully in the future the concept of genomics can have a greater impact on the cosmeceutical industry with greater advances. It’s believed that the field of gene study can eventually improve product formulations to provide better effects for consumers while ensuring product safety as well as cost savings, as research may find that small amounts of expensive ingredients can produce the same effect. Currently, gene study is used in the skin care industry to determine how specific ingredients regulate gene expression and to create custom products based on your individual gene sequence. If you do find yourself interested in getting a personalized skin care regimen based on your genes, you can still give the DNA tests a try. Many dermatologists now offer such services, but remember to take it with a grain of rice.
There’s still so much we don’t know about our genes, and it’s impossible to predict whether a child will resemble mom or dad — or neither! When the sperm meets the egg, the right mix of genes can come together to express traits that neither parent possesses, such as a blonde-haired child born to brown-haired parents. Most of our traits are also the result of many genes working together, which means some effects can be reduced, amplified or switched off.
Modern science is still many years away from understanding parental inheritance completely, but we do know enough now to make some good guesses.
Hair and Eyes
We do know some genes that influence pigmentation of the eyes and hair, although it isn’t fully understood yet. Eye color can’t be predicted yet, but we are able to give a good guess. Light-colored eyes, including green, gray and blue, are recessive and usually show up when both parents have light eyes, although it can show up if one or both parents has brown eyes but carry genes for light-colored eyes.
In terms of hair, the level of darkness depends on how much melanin is produced. Genes for less melanin and light hair are recessive, while darker hair is dominant. Red hair is a special recessive gene. If it’s combined with genes for black or brown hair, it is often obscured completely. If it’s combined with genes for lighter hair, it can result in strawberry blond, light auburn or brilliant orange hair.
Height is complicated because, while genes do play a big role, so does gender, nutrition and exercise. Boys tend to be taller than girls, and researchers believe genetics and gender combined account for 70% of our height, but external factors like dit and health account for 30%. If you want to estimate how tall your child will be (accurate within 5 inches), add together the height of the parents, divide by two then subtract 3 inches for a girl or add 3 inches for a boy.
Intelligence appears to be based on genes as well as environment, although genetics do play a strong role. Researchers have found that identical twins (even if raised in different households) have an IQ difference of just 5.9 points. The more closely related two individuals are, the closer their IQ. Research has also found that genius is often a combination of superior genes.
We do know that prominent noses are dominant to smaller noses. Nose shapes also tend to run in the family, according to Dr. Kyle S. Choe, MD of http://ChoeCenter.com/Rhinoplasty.html, a plastic surgeon who often performs nose reshaping surgery for siblings. We have also recently discovered that there are five genes that help shape the face, but there are no common variants with large effects on facial features. Instead, there are most likely hundreds or thousands of variants that each have a small impact on the face. Researchers hope that within five years, they will be able to create some type of facial reconstruction with DNA.
If you or someone you know has a dorsal hump on their nose, it may have occurred for two reasons; one, via genetics or via some sort of trauma to the nose. But how can you tell if a dorsal hump is there due to familial or acquired reasons? The answer is that this may not be possible. This is because, although genetics play an important role in many aspects of how we look, there are several external factors which can influence the anatomy of the nose.
External Factors That Can Cause Dorsal Hump
Facial plastic surgeon Dr. Shervin Naderi of http://www.VirginiaFacialPlasticSurgery.com/rhinoplasty.html reveals many possible causes of a dorsal hump on the nose, including the architecture of the nose, shape of the chin and even enlarged adenoids in childhood. Another way that a dorsal hump can develop is if some sort of fracture or severe trauma without a fracture occurs during a crucial stage of growth.
The dorsal hump can be an excess of bone, cartilage or both. In some people, the hump exists on the bridge of the nose at the upper bony portion. And so for these cases, the rhinoplasty procedure would simply involve the removal of excess bone. In those cases where both excess bone and cartilage contribute to a dorsal hump, bone removal as well as shaving of the cartilage is done.
How much of a dorsal hump you are left with will depend on how well you’ve communicated your desires to your surgeon. Many surgeons offer digital morphing services right in their office so that patients can see how their nose will look following different levels of hump removal.
Skin Thickness As A Factor
While rhinoplasty is a perfectly safe and effective means of reducing or eliminate a dorsal hump on the nose, those with thicker skin on the nose may not be able to reduce hump size as much as they desire. The reason for this is that thicker skin may not be able to as effectively redrape or settle around the nose once the rhinoplasty procedure has been completed. If your skin is thicker, it’s also due to genetics!
What to Expect From Your Surgeon
Anytime you visit a surgeon for any procedure, you should benefit from expert-level knowledge about all aspects of pre and post-surgery. Not only should you have all the information you need before surgery, but you should leave your surgeon’s office completely satisfied.
Rhinoplasty is a very positive experience that gives you a brand new look that you can enjoy for a lifetime. And the best way to ensure that this happens is to thoroughly research surgeons before you choose the one who will be performing the procedure.
Are you angered by the sight of under-eye puffiness, jowls and other unsightly features? You may have your parents to blame. Although some of these genetic manifestations can be something that many women can live with, others seek a way to minimize or eliminate them. Many women opt for one of the most popular forms of plastic surgery: the facelift.
Can You Have The Procedure?
As long as your general health is sound, you should be able to undergo facelift surgery. Of course, it is recommended that you speak with your surgeon about your genetic issues to confirm your eligibility. You will need to provide as much detail as possible so that your surgeon completely understands the task before them.
Dr. Nathan Nachlas, MD, FACS, who specializes in this procedure, is one of many surgeons who requires good elasticity in the skin in order for successful facelift surgery to be performed. This is because good skin elasticity will allow for the skin to be adequately stretched and pulled during the procedure.
How Can A Facelift Benefit You?
Of course, the main benefit of having plastic surgery due to a genetic issue is that the issue is finally corrected. This can mean far less embarrassment or self-consciousness, which can reduce overall stress. Today’s facelift procedures also boast results that are long-lasting, which means it could be many years before you may need to revisit your surgeon’s office, if you ever do.
Another benefit of having a facelift is the fact that it is available to both male and female patients. This means that anyone can have a genetic issue corrected via facelift surgery.
Are there Any Risks?
As with any other form of surgery, facelift surgery does carry some risk. Pain and redness are both common conditions associated with facelifts, as incisions are made in various areas and can become painful. Usually, a surgeon will provide the patient with medication to ease the pain and prevent infection. However, if a high temperature is experienced, it is very important to get in touch with your surgeon as soon as you can.
How Long Will It Take Me To Recover?
The typical recovery time for facelift surgery is about one week. During this time, many surgeons will advise their patients to rest and avoid physical activity for this period. This will help the body to heal. Depending on the genetic issue being addressed with the facelift, it may result in a temporary change of diet as well.
The best advice is to gain as much knowledge as possible about the surgery so that you are well-informed before you even visit your surgeon’s office for the first time.
The causes of bipolar disorder are not yet very clear to the medical community but a lot has been learned about the condition in the past decade. From the emotional highs to the lows (and everything in between these extremes), doctors now have a good understanding of how this condition manifests.
There are very many questions regarding whether or not there is a genetic connection that predisposes people to developing bipolar disorder. A number of researchers have set out to investigate this very matter and the findings have been eye-opening.
Twins and Bipolar Disorder
In a study investigating the occurrence of bipolar disorder in identical twins, findings established that there is a high likelihood that if one of those twins develops the disease, the other twin will also develop it. That was not the case with another sibling to the identical twins so the twins scenario points to genetics playing a big role in how this conditions manifests in families.
Dr. Andrew Campbell, a plastic surgeon, narrated an experience of a distraught patient that approached him to carry out a procedure like this on her that very day. Noting the irregularity of her request, he patiently took her through what the process entailed and her hysterical condition led him to ask questions that brought to light the fact that she had bipolar disorder, just like her identical twin sister.
That patient’s example illustrates how the condition can lead sufferers to take rash actions and if no professionals are available to help them, they could potentially harm themselves.
Children of Parents with Bipolar Disorder
Researchers at Stanford University looked into the incidence of bipolar disorder in children born to a parent or parents that had the disease. They found that if one of the parents had the disease, there was a more than 50% chance that the children would also develop it.
In fact, there was a greater likelihood that the children would get a mental disorder such as depression, ADHD, or low grade depression that is chronic. In parents that had ADHD in their childhood, researchers found that such parents had a very high likelihood of having children that had bipolar disorder rather than attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The more relatives there are with affective disorders, the higher the chance that others in that family would suffer from those conditions.
This connection does not only stop at children. Even other relatives become prone to major mental disorders if there is someone in the extended family that has bipolar disorder.
Much as the causes of bipolar disorder are not clearly understood, there is a lot that can be done to help sufferers get relief from the symptoms of the disease. The fact that a genetic link exists in showing who is likely to develop the disease should be seen as an early warning signal so that family members can be quickly helped when the disease does show up.
It is therefore important to keep you doctor informed if a case of bipolar disorder exists in the family so that the doctor can advise you on how best to keep yourself in good health should you start showing signs of affective diseases.
If it seems like you’re getting crow’s feet and fine lines earlier than your friends, it may be mom’s fault. Scientists have recently found a set of genes passed down from our mothers that influences aging. When we get defective genes, we suffer from premature aging. This includes wrinkles as well as a shorter lifespan. Scientists also found that damage to the mitochondria, which turn food into energy, accelerates age-related health conditions.
After performing experiments on mice, a team of researchers from Germany and Sweden discovered that defective mDNA causes serious genetic disease, but even mild damage accelerates aging.
This is because the aging that we see and feel is really the result of many types of cell damage. Most of this damage comes from our lifestyle and environmental factors, but our genes also play a big role. There are three causes of aging skin: genetic aging, environmental aging (such as smoking or sun damage) and hormonal aging. All three cause collagen to break down over time, weakening elastin in the skin and causing skin to become lax with wrinkles and lost volume.
Genetic aging is natural and occurs over time. Some people are simply predisposed to developing wrinkles earlier than average, while some are blessed with genes that keep them looking younger than their age. Some people are so lucky they can maintain youthful skin just based on genetics, while most have to turn to skincare products, cosmetic surgery and lifestyle changes.
Defective mDNA plays a role in many age-related problems, including heart disease and dementia. mDNA is also more susceptible to damage than regular DNA, they discovered.
Researchers still aren’t sure how big a role damaged mDNA from mom plays in aging, but this research and more studies to come may one day help find a way to slow down aging.
The good news is just about 10% of how your skin ages is genetic. You do have control over how you take care of your skin, including staying out of the sun, avoiding smoking and using moisturizer, according to Dr. Alexander S. Donath, MD, who performs procedures like this in Ohio. Even if you get get genes for early facial aging, there are steps you can take to turn back the hands of time.
You can help counteract genetic aging by drinking plenty of water, using exfoliants to clean your skin and changing your lifestyle. Eat a diet rich in antioxidants like fruits and vegetables, give up smoking for good and wear sunscreen every day — even when it’s cloudy — to fight back against those genes you get from mom. Keep in mind the most common causes of premature facial aging, aside from genetics:
1. Smoking. Smoking is a toxin to your skin, and just about the worst thing you can do for your skin because it harms your body’s ability to heal itself. If you quit smoking, you can help undo some of the damage that’s been done to improve your skin tone and clarity.
2. Not wearing sunscreen. 90% of wrinkles come from sun exposure. The best way to maintain a youthful appearance is staying out of the sun and wearing sunscreen.
3. Not exercising. Exercise gives you that healthy glow because it dilates blood vessels in the skin and sends nutrient-rich blood to the area. Aim for 30 minutes of aerobic exercise three times a week.
Vein disorders are one of the most common hereditary disorders. There are different types and more often than not, these disorders may cause discomfort, physical limitations, and other more serious disorders.
This article will discuss two genetic vein disorders, chronic venous insufficiency and Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome, and how these conditions affect the lives of those affected with it.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
This disorder causes leg pain and swelling and results to development of varicose veins. CVI is caused by either damaged valves in the veins or vein blockage. When venous valves in the legs are damaged, blood cannot flow back up to the heart. As the heart is pumped back up, the valves cannot close and hold it, so the blood flows back down the veins. This process is called venous reflux. Blood then accumulates in the vein causing it to twist and enlarged. This manifests through unsightly varicose and spider veins. Venous reflux can be caused by hereditary or non-hereditary vein wall weakness; deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or blood clots; and a lack of vein valves since birth.
CVI is an extremely common condition. In fact, it can affect about 20 percent of adults in America. Further, approximately 20 to 25 million Americans are estimated to have varicose and spider veins.
This condition may lead to other serious conditions such as hypertension, ulcers at ankles or legs, and drastic skin changes. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition limits physical activities like standing, walking, running, and exercising. Patients may be intolerable to hiking, bicycling, jogging, trekking, and long hours of walking.
This condition hampers the normal development of blood vessels, bones, and soft tissues. The most obvious sign of the condition is the overgrowth of one limb (one arm or one leg). This affects walking and may cause severe discomfort, muscles cramps, swelling, and reduced movement.
It will also cause a port-wine stain to develop on affected limbs. This stain ranges from pale pink to deep maroon and may become lighter or darker through time. This stain is unsightly and may develop sensitive small blisters that bleed easily.
The syndrome also causes abnormal vein formation, most often varicose veins. If deep veins malfunction due to abnormal formations, it may produce DVT which can travel to the rest of the body. If it blocks veins in the lungs, this causes a life-threatening condition known as pulmonary embolism (PE).
Treatment of Venous Disorders
Those affected with CVI and Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome should consult doctors about the best surgeries. It can be treated with basic remedies such as medicines, compression stockings, lifestyle changes, and non-surgical procedures. Non-surgical treatments such as sclerotherapy and endovenous thermal ablation are performed by most clinics like Advanced Vein and Vascular Center, a vein center in Mainline PA. However, in more severe cases, surgical treatments such as ligation, microincision, and vein bypass are needed. Clinics also offer vein removal procedures, just like this clinic that performs vein removal in Scottsdale, Arizona.
Vein disorders can seriously stop a person from living life to the fullest, so these conditions should be addressed as soon as possible.
Genetics is a very important aspect of our existence. Our physical attributes and capabilities are dictated by our genes. Tall people are basically offspring of tall parents. In the same manner that athletic individuals are most often than not children of athletes or athletic parents.
If you are interested in the field of genetics, perhaps a career in Genetic Engineering for human health is one that is fit for you. Let us take a look at the roadmap you are to take if this is a career path you would pursue.
What is a genetic engineer?
A genetic engineer, especially one who focuses on human health, is one who deals with treatment of chronic diseases. They are also responsible for turning harmful bacteria into some sort of messengers that would take healing drugs to certain tissues in the body. These are just some of the basic works a genetic engineer does.
Here are three steps you should take on your education to pursue a genetic engineering career.
- Bachelor’s degree
Of course you should have a bachelor’s degree first. You can opt for biology or chemistry as both are branches of physical science. The best thing for you to do is consult your college adviser for guidance on this matter. Some institutions have undergraduate programs for related fields on genetic engineering; so asking for guidance from college advisers can prove to be significant.
- Advanced Degrees (Master’s or Ph.D.)
If you are gunning for employment beyond entry-level, then you have to take an advanced degree. A bachelor’s degree can land you an entry-level position in the genetic engineering field. But to move up the ladder, you have to upgrade yourself. Advanced degrees will provide you the exposure and experience in your researches. This is a very good preparation for what is to come in the actual field.
- On-the-Job Experience
Once you have completed the necessary degrees, you have to gain work experience. You’ll be glad to know that there are so many places you can go to have an OJT experience for genetic engineering. You can work as a breast cancer researcher, or as a forensic scientist.
You can even try working in this site to aid in their hormone replacement therapy in Miami.
Genetic engineering is a broad field. Check out a career in this field and you may find one that may fit you.
Allergies are not only annoying; they can also be life-threatening when they occur in a severe form. Allergies are an excessive immune response to substances in the environment such as pollen.
The body regards the proteins in these substances as harmful to it and it goes into overdrive in its attack against them. It isn’t uncommon to find entire families having some form of allergy and that begs the question; are seasonal allergies genetic?
While science is yet to explain why the body reacts the way to does to allergens, there have been findings to the effect that allergies are genetic.
The Gender Link
While seasonal allergies do have a genetic factor, it is not possible to pass on a specific allergy to offspring. The parents may both have allergies but their children will hardly be allergic to the same things that their parents are allergic to; they may be allergic to something else. What has become apparent is that if a parent of a certain gender has a certain allergy, chances are high that a child of the same gender will develop that allergy.
The same applies to allergies like eczema. If a mother has it, her daughter will most likely have it while there is a very minute chance that her son will get it. The same scenario plays out if the father has it.
Are There Other Factors Involved?
Research has established that many cases of allergies in families could be linked to additional factors other than heredity. Such factors include the fact those family members share the space in which they live, and their diet is basically the same for all family members.
Under such conditions, it becomes increasingly likely that if there is an allergen it will affect the family members equally and since they have a predisposition to suffer from that allergy, they may exhibit varying symptoms of allergic reaction.
It was found that if a mother ate for example peanuts while she was pregnant, her child had a quadruple chance of getting an allergic reaction to peanuts while that chance only doubled if the mother ate them while breastfeeding.
What Can Be Done About Seasonal Allergies?
Once your parents suffer from allergies, it is wise to talk to your physician since you could have allergic reactions to certain drugs due to that predisposition to suffer from allergies.
You should also discuss the situation of your kids if you both have allergies. The pediatrician will assess the situation and chart out a way to get the child onto immunotherapy or to watch out for allergic reactions to medications before they cause serious harm.
Dr. George Moynihan MD, a plastic surgeon who performs this procedure http://www.goldcoastplasticsurgery.com/rhinoplasty.aspx in Chicago, says that in some cases, nose surgery has been able to provide some relief to a number of patients that suffer from seasonal allergies.
Otherwise the first line of defense is to avoid exposure to the substance that you are allergic to during the time of the year when it is most prevalent. To avoid it, you must first know what it is that triggers that response so study your own reaction to things around you.
Do you have your mother or father’s nose? While we don’t know exactly which genes play a role in nose shape, we do know this characteristic is controlled by more than one gene. Geneticists have been doing a great deal of research over the past decade into why our noses are different shapes, and there have been some interesting conclusions.
5 Genes that Determine Face Shape
About two years ago, researchers confirmed that three genes thought to be involved in face shape (PRDM16, TP63 and PAX3) as well as two genes calle C5orf50 and COL17A1 play a role in our facial structure. Researchers were surprised, because it’s always been assumed that hundreds or thousands of genes with small effects influenced face shape. So, what do these genes do?
PAX 3 regulates muscle-cell formation and it determines the distance between the top of your nose and your eyes. People who have a mutation in PAX3 develop a condition called Waardenburg syndrome with wide-set eyes.
Mutations in PRDM16, on the other hand, causes a cleft palate in mice, as well as extensive freckling, missing teeth and thin skin.
Your Sinuses and the Shape of Your Nose
The human nose has pouches on either side called maxillary sinuses, but there is a great deal of variation in these structures. In one recent study, which you can read about by clicking here, researchers took computer tomography scans of 40 people; half African-American or native South African and half European-American. These researchers found that the greater the volume of the nasal cavity, the greater the size of the maxillary sinuses, which is associated with face size. They found that these sinuses play some role in the shape of the nose. If the face is the same size, maxillary sinuses are about 36% larger in European-Americans rather than African-Americans because Europeans usually have narrower nose shapes.
Nose Width and Climate
Scientists have also found that nose shape is determined, to some degree, by climate conditions as well. The longer the nasal passage, the more effective the nose is at warming and moistening incoming air, which is why people with ancestry from cold or dry conditions have higher, narrower noses, such as Europeans. This also explains why people with broad, low noses tend to be people from humid, tropical areas like southeast Asia and some areas of Africa.
Genetics Even Determines the Structure of Your Nose
Ask any rhinoplasty surgeon if there is a difference between the nose type of different ethnicities and you will get a resounding yes. I asked Dr. Philip J. Miller, MD, a surgeon who performs procedures like you see here, about the differences. According to Dr. Mounsey, Asians and African Americans tend to have a slightly flatter nasal structure and thicker skin in the nasal area, for example, which makes it difficult to improve the definition of the nose tip. Hispanic people tend to have thicker nasal skin as well, which sometimes requires nasal cartilage tip grafts to define the tip. These differences, which may not be apparent to the naked eye, are all determined by genetics.